Soil moisture means the water content present in the soil particles. The water is held within the soil pores. Soil water is the major element of the soil regarding plant growth. Plants can easily absorb water in the soil, if the moisture content is present in it. By dissolving salts in soil water they create soil solution and this is the vital medium for supplying nutrients to plants. Whereas root zone soil moisture is the water which is present in the upper 200 cm of soil, surface soil moisture is the water which is in the upper 10 cm of soil. Soil moisture also affects the amount of rainfall.
Usually soil moisture is important to many hydrological, biological and biogeochemical processes but is smaller in content. Soil moisture is concerned with weather, flood control, soil erosion and slope failure, reservoir management, geotechnical engineering, and water quality. This is a key variable in controlling the exchange of water and heat energy between the land surface and the atmosphere through evaporation and plant transpiration. Thus soil moisture plays an important role in the escalation of weather conditions and the production of rainfall. Improved models of soil moisture, vegetation and temperature also lead to considerable predict advancements. Sensing of soil moisture can only be possible in the top few centimeters of soil.
Yield of crop is determined by the quantity of water available in the soil rather than the scarcity of other nutrients. Water is necessary for regulating soil temperature and for the process of photosynthesis. There are several geophysical techniques to determine soil moisture content. The moisture level in soil increases due to an adequate rainfall. High or low soil moisture prevents certain root decay diseases of plants. Soil moisture plays a major role in the rate of soil respiration and the transport of carbon in the environment.
The upcoming posts will reveal more about the soil texture.